Charging and discharging of capacitors
(1) The process of charging.
The process of charging a capacitor (storing charge and energy) is called charging. Connect one electrode plate of the capacitor to the positive pole of the power supply, and the other electrode plate to the negative pole of the power supply, and each electrode plate carries an equal amount of different charges. After charging, there is an electric field between the two plates of the capacitor, and the charging process stores the electrical energy obtained from the power source in the capacitor.
(2) The process of discharging.
The process of causing a charged capacitor to lose its charge (releasing charge and energy) is called discharge. For example, if a wire is used to connect the two poles of a capacitor, the charges on the two poles will neutralize each other, and the capacitor will release charges and electrical energy. After discharge, the electric field between the two plates of the capacitor disappears and electrical energy is converted into other forms of energy.
Battery self-discharge refers to the ability of a battery to maintain its stored charge in an open circuit state. The self discharge types of lithium-ion batteries can be divided into physical self discharge and chemical self discharge. The battery cells are connected in series or parallel to form a module. If the self-discharge consistency of the cells within the module is poor, it can lead to inconsistent voltage at the internal cell terminals of the module after storage for a period of time, resulting in some cells reaching the target voltage while the other cells are still at a high or low voltage during the charging and discharging process, leading to overcharging or discharging of the cells, and even causing problems, This is also a challenge to the module's voltage balancing ability. Self discharge is an important performance indicator of lithium-ion capacitors.
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